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Food Cafe go-live on 30 Nov 2008. An exchange of cooking experience, method and recipes with new and old friends. Most importantly to keep the old times recipes going. That's the spirit of this blog.
1) Low-protein flour/ cake flour 低筋麵粉 [Chinese] Hakurikiko 薄力粉 [Japanese] Notes: wheat flour, 6-8% protein Cake Flour is a superb quality, soft-as-silk flour. It has excellent tolerance to a high amount of butter and sugar, resulting in cakes of good volume. This flour is best used for baking sponge cakes and very rich cakes like pound cakes.
2) Medium-protein flour/ all-purpose flour 中筋麵粉 [Chinese] Notes: wheat flour, 10-12% protein Plain Flour is an all-purpose flour, best used for making cakes, pancakes, pastries, batter and as a thickener. This flour is also ideal for Oriental specialities like Chinese dumpling (bao), Chinese dough fritters (yu tiao) and roti prata.
3) High-protein flour/ bread flour 高筋麵粉 [Chinese] Notes: wheat flour, 13%-14% protein Bread Flour is a high-protein flour, ideal for making all varieties of bread, buns
4) Self-Raising Flour Self-Raising Flour is a premium quality flour blended with the right amount of leavening agents. It is best suited for baking cakes, hot cakes such as American pancakes and cookies. It is also excellent as a batter for frying chicken, fish, prawns and banana fritters. 1 cup self-raising flour = 1 cup cake flour + 1 tsp baking powder + pinch of salt
5) Superlite / Hong Kong Flour Superlite is a super soft flour. It is best used for making Hong Kong type steamed buns (bao), Japanese castella cake, Malay sponge cake (kueh baulu) and others where a specially soft and light texture is required.
6) Top Flour Top Flour is an extra-fine quality flour to give exceptionally smooth and fine texture for your baking needs. It is especially ideal for baking very fine cakes; such as chiffon cakes, swiss rolls, crepes, cake doughnuts and butter cookies
7) Wheat starch 澄麵粉 [Cant.] tung mein fun 澄粉 [Mand.] deng4 fen3 Suitable for making chinese dim sum like prawn dumpling (ha kau), nian gao and turnip cake
8) Glutinous rice flour/ sweet rice flour 糯米粉 [Chinese] Shiratamako 白玉粉 [Japanese] It becomes thick when mixed with water and heated. Chinese dim sum and local desserts made from glutinous flour are smooth and shiny. Notes: Cooked, or dry-fried, glutinous rice flour is sold as a different product called 熟糯米粉／糕粉 gao fun [Cant.]. According to Kuali.com, “You can dry-fry glutinous rice flour yourself but it will not be as fine as the commercialised kao fun. Those that are imported from China are very fine. Try looking for this item in provision shops around your area.”Cooked glutinous flour used for making Snow Skin - Ping Pei (chilled) mooncakes and banana rolls
9) Rice flour 粘米粉／黏米粉／在來米粉／在萊米粉／再來米粉 [Chinese] Jyoshinko 上新粉 [Japanese] Used frequently in chinese dim sum like turnip cake and yam cake, and local desserts like kuih lapis and kuih talam.
10) Corn flour/ cornstarch 生粉 [Cant.] 粟粉／粟米粉／玉米粉／玉米澱粉 Corn flour is very useful for gluten-free quick breads. As a thickener, having double the thickening properties of regular flour. It is widely used for thickening sauces, gravies, and puddings
11) Water chestnut flour 馬蹄粉 [Chinese] Its best uses are similar to those for corn-starch, e.g., as a thickener and breading material. It is mixed with a small amount of water before being added to the hot mixture to be thickened.
12) Tapioca flour 樹薯粉／木薯粉／茨粉／(菱粉／泰國生粉／太白粉／地瓜粉) Consumed as a vegetable, or used in bread baking or as a thickening agent in liquid foods, custards, puddings etc. When cooked, tapioca swells into a pale, translucent jelly. Malaysians use this flour frequently in kuih making, e.g. kuih bangkit, kuih bongkong and onde-onde.
13) Potato flour 生粉／太白粉 Katakuriko 片栗粉 Gives smooth and transparent result when used as thickener in soups or sauces. Sauces thickened with potato starch turns thinner after cooling.
14) Sweet Potato flour 番茨粉 蕃薯粉 fan1 shu3 fen3 地瓜粉 di4 gua1 fen3 Normally used as thickener and in making of chinese dim sum. Gives crispy skin when used as coating of fried food.
15) Soya bean flour (toasted) Kinako きな粉 Soy flour turns up in an amazing array of food products, including fudge and other candies, pies, doughnuts, cakes and rolls, pasta, pancake mixes and frozen desserts. Some meat loaves and other prepared meat products use soy flour. Baked products containing soy flour tend to brown more quickly, so it may be necessary to shorten baking time or lower the temperature just slightly.
16) Sago flour 沙谷粉 Used as thickener or Kueh Bangkit
17) Arrowroot flour 葛粉 Kuzuko葛粉 Used in diets requiring bland, low-salt, and low-protein foods. It is, however, mostly used as a thickening agent for sauces, fruit pie fillings, glazes, puddings, but can also be used as a flour substitute mixed with rice flour for gluten-free baking.
18) Mugwort flour Yomogiko 蓬粉 A flour used in making in sai biang, molded steamed cakes served in celebration of certain Chinese festivals.
19) Hoen Kwe flour, Green bean flour, Mung bean flour Commonly used in making Malaysian kuihs (like pandan layer cake, cendol) and Indonesian desserts.
As long as you're making the same bread, no matter how much you want to bake, you may easily calculate the amount of each ingredient with baker's percentage method. To determine the baker's percentage, the weight of flour is always set at 100%. All ingredients are measured by their weight in relation to that of flour. The total must add up to over 100%.
Calculate the baker's percentage according to the amount listed in a recipe. Baker's percentage = (weight of a certain ingredient / weight of flour) x 100
Flour - 1000 g (100%) Sugar - 30 g (30/1000 x 100) = 3% Egg - 200 g ( 200 / 1000 x 100) = 20% Sea Salt - 10 g (10/1000 x 100) = 1% Yeast - 30 g (30/1000 x 100) = 3%
Based on the above percentage and re-compute the weight of each ingredients.